Saturday, January 8, 2011

App B : Chronology





570 Muhammad born in Mecca
610 First revelation from Gabrief
622 Hijra; i.e. Muhammad migrates to Medina
630 Muhammad captures Mecca
632 Death of Muhammad; Abu Bakr, his close friend and colleague becomes the first successor or Caliph
634 Death of Abu Bakr; Umar succeeds as second Caliph
637 Arabs occupy Persain capital; by 651 the entire Persian realm is under the rule of Islam
638 Romans defeated at the battle of Yarmouk; Mslims enter Palestine. Conquest of Syria, Lebanon and Iraq completed by 641.
641 Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites the Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors. This exemplifies the alliances frequently formed between Muslims, Christians and Jews in the early stages of Islam
644 Umar murdered; succeeded by Uthman
654 Islam spreads into all of North Africa
656 Uthman murdered; succeeded by Ali
661 Uthman’s followers murder Ali; one of Uthman’s relatives assume the title of Caliph and his Ummayyad dynasty rules from Damascus until 750
710 Islam crosses Gibralter; entire Iberian penisula uner Islamic control by 718
732 Muslim expansion in France halted at the battle of Politers
750 Abbasids (descendants of Muhammad’s uncle) take over the Caliphate and shift the capital to Baghdad
768 Ishaq ibn Yaser records the first history of Muhammad
945 A Shiite band invades Baghdad bringing an end to Abbasid dynasty. No central Islamic rule until sixteenth century
970 Seljuk Turks enter the territories of Islam and gradually become the dominant force
1096 Crusaders arrive in Near East
1162-1227 Chingiz Khan, a Mongol Buddhist, destroys Arabic civilization


636 Arabs invade Thane (Mumbai)
643 Arabs invade Sindh
680 Baluchistan (Makran) annexed
712-713 Muhammad bin Kasim captures Sindh including Multan, Hindu rule restored in 716
735 Parsis arrive from iran at Sanjana
870 Zabul (South Afghanistan) annexed
912 Kabul snatched from Brahmin ruler
962 Ghazni kingdom founded
999 Muhammad Ghazni invades India
1008 Muhammd conquers Kangra
1026 Kabul and all Afghanistan finally under Muslim rule
1030 Lahore passes into Muslim hands
1034 Ahmad Niyaltagin invades Varanasi
1189 Shahabuddin (Muhammad) Ghori captures Bhatinda (until 1191)
1192 Prithviraj killed and Delhi captured
1206-10 Kutubuddin Aibak, Sultan of Delhi after Ghori’s death
1210-11 Aramshah
1212-35 Iltumish
1236-40 Razia Begum
1266-87 Balban
1290-1321 Khilji Dynasty
1310 Malik Kafur’s first invasion of South
1321-1398 Tughlak Dynasty
Bahamani Kingdom
1336-1565 Vijaynagar Empire
1398 Timurlang invades India
1399-1451 Syed Dynasty
1451-1526 Lodi Dynasty
1498 Vasco de Gama reaches India
1526 First battle of Panipat
1530-55 Humayun
1539-45 Sher Shah
1556-1605 Akbar
1605-27 Jehangir
1628-57 Shahjahan
1674-80 Shivaji rules as Chattrapati
1657-1707 Aurangzeb
1714-1818 Marathas under Peshwas
1780-1849 Sikh rule
1857 First War of Independence and formal end of Moghul Empire

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